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While 16 and 17 year olds can consent to sex, they can only do so when their partner is not relying on their trust, authority or dependency to obtain that consent.
In addition to these criminal laws against child sexual abuse and exploitation, each province and territory has its own child welfare laws to protect children against abuse, exploitation and neglect.
This means that if the partner is 5 years or older than the 14 or 15 year old, any sexual activity is a criminal offence.
There is also a "close in age" exception for 12 and 13 year olds.
If someone is under 16 years old, they can have sex with someone within 5 years of their age.
So, for example, a 14 year old can have sex with someone up to 18 years old (as long as the age gap is less than 5 years).